THE SAGELY CITY OF TEN THOUSAND BUDDHAS
Beings who seem to be Shramanas but in their minds are not Shramanas, who destroy the things of the Eternally Dwelling, who deceive lay people, who go against the precepts, and who commit many other evil deeds, will fall into the Relentless Hell where for thousands of billions of eons they will seek escape in vain.
There are four kinds of Shramana:
The first of these refers to the Buddhas and great Bodhisattvas. The second applies to those who explain sutras and preach the Dharma, particularly greatly virtuous monks and Arhats who having borne testimony to the fruition spend their lives expounding it. The third kind, the Shramana who lives the Way, takes cultivation of the Way as his very life. The fourth kind, who are discussed in the sutra passage cited here, are Shramanas who defile the Way.
Although the word Shramana has four meanings, it can also be explained with three meanings, which are not three at all but really two, and these two in turn are really just one, which is to say, Shramana. Ah, how amazing is this Buddhadharma! The one meaning is simply Shramana, and that means “diligent” and “cease”.
“Diligent” refers to Shramanas who are not lazy, and “cease” refers to those who are. So you see, Shramana has two meanings; one points to laziness, the other to vigor. The lazy one says to the diligent, “Don’t bother working, relax and take it easy.”
The diligent one replies, “Don’t be so lazy; follow me and cultivate the Way.” Since there are two sides, there is a battle to see which one will win. The one with greater strength will pull the other over. If the power of the diligent is greater, the lazy side loses; if the power of the lazy is greater, the diligent side loses. So these are the two meanings of the word “Shramana”: being diligent and ceasing.
But I also said that this word has three meanings. How? There are three aspects to both “diligence” and “ceasing”. The threefold aspect of the former is the energetic cultivation of morality, Samadhi, and wisdom. The threefold aspect of the latter is the putting to rest of greed, hatred, and delusion.
Morality is abstinence from evil and carrying out good acts. It means to stop one’s own evil conducts and guard against future mistakes. The guides to morality are the precepts. How many moral precepts are there? There are the Five Precepts: abstention from killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, false speech, and intoxicants. In addition to these there are the Eight Precepts, the Ten Precepts of a Shramanera, the Two Hundred and Fifty Precepts of the Bhikshus and the Bodhisattva Precepts, which consist of ten major and forty-eight minor ones. There are also the Three Hundred and Forty-Eight Precepts of the Bhikshunis. Some people say that Bhikshunis have five hundred precepts, let’s not worry too much about this, these days most receive the three hundred and forty-eight.
Samadhi is developed by meditation. It must be cultivated; without cultivation, Samadhi cannot be gotten. Why do people meditate? To meditate is to cultivate Samadhi little by little. When you first begin to meditate, you have no Samadhi, and your thoughts run off to the heavens and the hells, to the Buddhas and to the Bodhisattvas; in fact, your mind wanders all over the realm of horses, cows, sheep, chickens, dogs and pigs. You see, your mind does not need a boarding pass; it freely roams the heavens and hells. It roams about due to a lack of Samadhi. We are cultivating now to prevent our minds from running all over, from going east and west, and up and down.
Someone is thinking, “Why bother cultivating concentration? Compare it to dancing: you prance and leap about, and it’s much more interesting than just sitting there, like a stick of wood. What are the advantages of Samadhi anyway? It seems so rigid.” Basically it has no advantages. “Then why bother with it?” you ask. If you wish to reveal your inherent wisdom, you must first of all cultivate Samadhi, for if you are not able to concentrate, your thoughts will be scattered about and you will never manifest any wisdom. Wisdom comes from Samadhi; if you want to be released from delusion, cultivate Samadhi.
Now let me introduce someone who said that when meditating he felt as if he were on the edge of a great precipice, on the edge of a very deep abyss, and was frightened. This is one of the initial indicators of your wanting to develop Samadhi. Here one must be particularly fearless. I will take this opportunity today to talk about it. Didn’t I mention this before? If you are meditating and you feel that there is a great slab of iron suspended above your head on the verge of breaking loose, or if you feel a bomb is about to go off, do not be affected by it, because if you are, it will be quite easy to enter the realm of the demons. If you become attached to such signs, the “atomic bomb” you feel over your head may very well go off. If, on the other hand, you pay no attention to them, demons cannot come near you, and in fact they will have to run away.
The mental state in which a huge crevasse appears while you are in meditation represents your karmic obstacles, which are heavier and deeper than a ten-thousand-foot abyss. Now you know how heavy your karmic obstacles are, it should urge you to cultivate but do not be fearful.
Sometimes, when you are meditating, you may feel blissful, freedom which is so joyful that you forget everything else. This is a taste of dhyana, the most blissful experience in the world of form, which far surpasses connubial pleasures or pleasures from taking intoxicants. It is a state that cannot be described. It is said that only the one who drinks the tea knows whether it is cold or hot; the same is true of the flavor of dhyana. If you have experienced this state, you know what it is like; you can tell what stage or level someone as soon as they describe it. One of my disciples, for example, is about to reach the Ground Joy from Leaving Birth, one of the Four Dhyanas. This is actually quite common and can occur to anyone who cultivates sincerely. That kind of bliss cannot be compared to and at this point, one is on the verge of leaving afflictions and obtaining bliss. This stage is one form of Samadhi.
What is the function of wisdom? Someone with wisdom will not go down a wrong road. You are confused because you turn your back on enlightenment and unite with the dust. You mistake suffering for happiness because you are ignorant.
One must diligently cultivate morality, Samadhi, and wisdom. We do not need to listen to too many sutra lectures, just this one word, “diligence”, is enough for us to draw upon endlessly. Diligently cultivate morality. Diligently cultivate Samadhi. Diligently cultivate wisdom. We must cultivate; otherwise we do not acquire these. Listen to your master.
Also, we must put to rest greed, hatred and delusion. Did I not say resting is laziness? Laziness is about stopping and resting. But this resting is about putting greed, hatred and delusion to rest. When greed rests, you are not eager for any materialistic pleasures and others. When hatred rests, you do not get angry. Donate your anger. To whom? To me, to your master. A master needs huge fiery tempers that scare the disciples. The disciples are not afraid of a master as soft as cotton; hence they do not cultivate, being lazy.
The above are the various meanings on how Shramanas should diligently cultivate precepts, Samadhi and wisdom, put to rest greed, hatred, and delusion.
There are beings who seem to be Shramanas but in their minds are not Shramanas. Although they are Shramanas in name, they are not Shramanas in their hearts. Not only do they not cultivate morality, Samadhi, and wisdom, they do not end greed, hatred, and delusion. They claim more greed, hatred, and delusion are better and best of all forget about morality, Samadhi, and wisdom. They pretend to be Shramanas. This type of Shramanas does not practice compassion or patience, the Six Perfections or the Myriad Practices. They purposely avoid doing things that Shramanas do.
What do they do? Destroy the things of the Eternally Dwelling. Items belonging to the Triple Jewel, even small ones, cannot be wasted or casually ruined. Even though it is only a piece of paper, add it up and one turns into many. Even if you damage just a sheet of paper, you destroy the things of the Eternally Dwelling.
There is a saying, “Do not take even a blade of grass or a splinter of wood without permission.” Taking without permission is stealing. We cannot take use other people’s things without letting the owner know; otherwise that would be a theft, a violation of the precept against stealing. If as simple a thing as needle and thread is given to you as an offering, it may not be used carelessly and most certainly may not be given away. Even monastics cannot give away goods belonging to the temple to others. You may give away your personal belongings, such as an article of used clothing. Community items, however, even something as minute as a piece of thread cannot be casually given away to win friends. It is a mistake to gain personal favors so that people will feel obliged to aid and support you. Monastics must pay particular attention to this. Destroying the things of the Eternally Dwelling does not refer only to a large quantity of items, but merely giving away a sheet of paper, a piece of thread, or even a grain of rice based on emotion. Even monastics do not have the right to give away community items, even if it is just a stick of incense.
Those who constantly deceive and lie to lay people, who go against, or violate, the precepts such as the Five Precepts, the Ten Precepts, the Ten Major and 48 Minor Precepts, or the 250 Precepts. And who commit many other, not just one,unimaginable evil deeds will fall into the Relentless Hell where for thousands of billions of eons they will seek escape in vain.
Beings who steal the wealth and property of the Eternally Dwelling, including its grains, food and drink, and clothing, or who take anything at all that was not given to them, will fall into the Relentless Hell Where for thousands of billions of eons they will seek escape in vain.
If there were beingswho steal the wealth and property of the Eternally Dwelling. What items belonging to the temple do they steal? Money, grains, food, or clothing. Once a great Bodhisattva who made the vow, “If there are people who committed the Five Severe, the Four Heavy, and the Ten Evil Deeds, I can save them. However if they steal from the Eternally Dwelling, whether it be a blade of grass or a splinter of wood, I cannot save them because it is impossible. I can save those who have killed as many as 84,000 of their parents or committed some such heavy offense, I can save them. Using the power of my vow, I will save them from the hells. However, if they steal food, monetary goods, or even just a grain of rice from a temple, I cannot and will not save them.” A Bodhisattva made such a vow. So stealing from the Eternally Dwelling is the gravest offense. As Buddhists, we must be very clear on this point. Without the permission from the monastery, do not take anything be it valuables, grains, or food. If you do so, you will fall into the Relentless Hell where for thousands of billions of eons [you] will seek escape in vain.
Earth Store continued, “Worthy Mother, beings, who commit such offenses will fall into the Fivefold Relentless Hell where they will constantly seek temporary relief from their suffering but will never receive even a moment’s relief.”
Earth Store Bodhisattva continued, “Worthy Mother, or Lady Maya, beings, who commit such offenses will fall into the Fivefold Relentless Hell, five kinds of relentless hells, where they will constantly seek temporary relief from their suffering but will never receive even a moment’s relief.”
Lady Maya further asked Earth Store Bodhisattva, “Why is that hell called Relentless?”
Earth Store replied, “Worthy Mother, all the hells are within the Great Iron Ring Mountain. The eighteen great hells and the five hundred subsequent ones each have their own names. There are hundreds of thousands more that also have their own names. The Relentless Hell is found within a city of hells that encompasses more than eighty thousand square miles. That city is made entirely of iron. An unbroken mass of fire extends for ten thousand miles above the city. Within the city are many interconnected hells, each with a different name.
Shakyamuni Buddha’s mother, Lady Maya further asked Earth Store Bodhisattva, “Why is that hell called Relentless?”
To Shakyamuni Buddha’s mother, Earth Store Bodhisattva replied, “Worthy Mother, all the hells are within the Great Iron Ring Mountain. The eighteen great hells are the largest and the five hundred subsequent ones each have their own names. Each name is unique. There are hundreds of thousands more that also have their own and different names. What is the Relentless Hell? The Relentless Hell is found within a city of hells that encompasses more than eighty thousand square miles. That city is made entirely of iron. An unbroken mass of fire extends for ten thousand miles above the city. The fire that extends above the Relentless Hell shoots from the west side of the city wall to the east side; and from east side to the west side. Balls of fire also shoot from the south side of the city wall to the north side; and from north to south. This hell is full of fire and evil beasts everywhere that there is hardly any empty space. Within the city are many interconnected hells, each with a different name.
There is just one hell called Relentless. Its circumference is eighteen thousand miles. The wall of that hell is a thousand miles high, totally made of iron, and covered with a fire burning downward that is met by a fire burning upward. Iron snakes and dogs spewing fire race back and forth along the top of that wall.
There is just one hell called Relentless. This hell is named Relentless because the sufferings there are incessant. Who are the souls suffering in the hells? Those who committed offenses. Typically, someone dies without being too consciousness of the pain. For example, someone is burned to death at once in a fire or someone dies at once from the slash of a knife. Once they are dead, they do not notice any pain. In the hells, however, do beings notice their pain after death? They do not, but after they die once, they are born again, then die and are reborn repeatedly.
How do they come to life again? There are two kinds of wind in the hells. What are they? One is putrid and the other is fragrant; both are known as Clever Breezes, which strangely enough, blow and revive the dead. Those resurrected by the putrid wind are born again but ugly in appearance. Those resurrected by the fragrant wind are good looking. Most of those who are revived by the putrid wind continue to suffer, while those destined for the heavens are revived by the fragrant one. The fragrant breeze makes beings beautiful; in contrast, the putrid wind blows over and beings causes them to be ugly like asuras. As I described it earlier, all their facial features bunch together as tightly as if they were in one company. Is that not ugly? Revival by the putrid wind occurs instantly, and there is not the slightest interruption in the suffering.
Its circumference of this large city is eighteen thousand miles. The wall of that hell is a thousand miles high. Because the wall of that hell is one thousand miles high, all sunlight is blocked. It is dark in the hells except fires cast enough light to see by. The fires are the fires of karma, which roast and sear the skin, burning people as they suffer intolerable pain. Think about it. What would you do if you have to go there? No one is ever at ease in such a place.
The 1000 mile high wall is totally made of iron. Solid iron is symbolic of the firm and cool karmic obstacles that send us to the hells. Living beings’ karmic retribution is so solid that when they get to that place, their hearts turn stone-cold. They resolve any wish to compete for fame or profit. In such a place, there is only suffering; they experience no other thought. If you were there, a slap on the face would be much preferred over being burned by fire; someone kicking you would be preferred over the pain of being bitten by a dog. You would be content then. And the city is covered with a fire burning downward that is met by a fire burning upward.
Iron snakes and dogs. . . At every one of the four corners in this 1000 mile high city is a dog eight hundred miles tall. Each dog has eight heads, each of which has eight bull-like horns, making a total of 64 horns. As the heads turn about the horns become wheels of fire and knives, so that wherever one goes, one is slicing about and doing damage. Has anyone seen this kind of monster, a horned dog? What do you think of these animals? Go ahead and take a look if you wish, but let me tell you, you will never come back. There is no returning and no leaving that place. Going there is not like going to the movies. When you go to the movies you can always walk out, but when you go to the hells, there is no home to return to and no such freedom of choice. Not only do these dogs and snakes bite, they also spew fire. They have fires that burn their bodies which make them smell so noxiously that anyone who smells it will vomit their very guts. This is not a pleasant feeling. You don’t have to go there and look, just imagine it and you know it is uncomfortable. These iron snakes and dogs race back and forth along the top of that hell’s wall.
In that hell, there is a bed that extends for ten thousand miles. One person undergoing punishment sees his or her own body covering the entire bed. When hundreds of thousands of people undergo punishment simultaneously, each still sees his or her own body covering the bed. That is how retributions are undergone by those with the same karma.
In that hell, there is a bed that is not for beings there to sleep, but to make offenders suffer. The size of this bed extends for ten thousand miles. One person undergoing punishment sees his or her own body covering the entire bed. When hundreds of thousands of people undergo punishment simultaneously, each still sees his or her own body covering the bed. That is how retributions are undergone by those with the same karma. These punishments are a result of bad karma.
What is more, there offenders undergo extreme suffering. Hundreds of thousands of yakshas and other evil ghosts display fangs like swords and eyes like lightning as they pull and drag the offenders with their brass-clawed hands.
Other yakshas wield huge iron halberds that they use to pierce the offenders’ mouths and noses or stab their bellies and backs. They toss the offenders into the air and then catch them by skewering them with the halberds, or they let them drop onto the bed. Iron eagles peck at the offenders’ eyes and iron serpents wrap around their necks. Long nails are driven into all their limbs. Their tongues are pulled out, stretched, and then plowed through. Their internal organs are gouged out, sliced, and minced. Molten copper is poured into their mouths, and their bodies are bound with hot iron. Responses to their karma go on like that throughout hundreds of thousands of deaths and rebirths. They pass through hundreds of millions of eons seeking escape in vain.
Whether we are reciting a sutra, the Buddha’s name, or a mantra, we use energy. How should we use this energy? This energy must originate from the “dan-tien” and return to the “dan-tien”. “Dan-tien” lies inside the navel. The energy originated from the dan-tien is adequate so one ought not to overtly exert it. One shouldn’t under-exert either, but rather it should be done in a regular fashion as not to hurt it. Energy originating from the dan-tien, the fundamental source, is continuous and inexhaustible. However, if you do not know how to use it, you may injure your energy or even cut it off. Be aware of this point. If you know how to utilize it, whether writing or doing anything, then you do things with one fell swoop, an indication of your mastery.
What is more, there are many offenders who undergo the various kinds of extreme suffering in the hells. Hundreds of thousands of yakshas . Yaksas are speedy ghosts, and evil ones. There are many kinds of yaksas, such as the flying yaksas and the ground-traveling yaksas. And other evil ghosts. Evil ghosts are just yaksas and yaksas are just evil ghosts. Among the various kinds of yaksas, this particular type of evil ghosts referred to are the ground-traveling yaksas. They display fangs like swords. Their mouths are like caverns of blood, their teeth like blades. And eyes like lightning as they pull and drag the offenders with their brass-clawed hands. Their eyes shine like lightening and their hands are made of brass or as strong as brass. These ghosts pick offenders up and toss them about with their enormous strength, throwing them perhaps several yards, perhaps a hundred. Beings there have to go where these ghosts order.
Other yakshas wield huge iron halberds that they use to pierce the offenders’ bodies, mouths and noses or stab their bellies and backs. They toss the offenders into the air and then catch them by skewering them with the halberds, or they let them drop onto the bed, not to let them sleep but poke and pierce them with these iron halberds.
Iron eagles peck at the offenders’ eyes and heads, and crack open the skulls to eat the brains. And one type of iron serpents in particular that wrap around their necks. Long nails are driven into all their limbs and joints. Their tongues are pulled out, stretched, and then plowed through. Don’t lie or engage in gossip. Regardless of how others treat us, we refuse to critique others. For if we do, we will enter this hell and our tongue will be plucked or plowed through like a field. Their internal organs are gouged out, sliced, and minced. Molten copper is poured into their mouths, and their bodies are bound with hot iron. Responses to their karma go on like that throughout at least hundreds of thousands of deaths and rebirths. They undergo ten thousand deaths and as many births, in a single day. They pass through hundreds of millions of eons seeking escape in vain. It is difficult to leave this hell.
When this world is destroyed, they find themselves in another world. When that world is destroyed, they pass on to another one. When that world, too, is destroyed, they move on to another one. When this world comes into being again, they return here. The situation involving Relentless retribution for offenses is like that.
Moreover, five karmic responses account for the name Relentless. What are the five? First, it is said to be Relentless because punishment is undergone day and night throughout many eons without ceasing for a moment. Second, it is said to be Relentless because one person fills it in the same way that many people fill it.
Third, it is said to be Relentless because repeated punishments continue without cease throughout years that stretch into nayutas of eons. Those punishments are inflicted by instruments of torture such as forks and clubs; or by eagles, serpents, wolves, and dogs; or by pounding, grinding, sawing, drilling, chiseling, cutting and chopping; or by boiling liquids, iron nets, iron ropes, iron asses, and iron horses; or by rawhide stripes bound around one’s head and molted iron poured over one’s body; or by meals of iron pellets and drinks of molten iron.
Fourth, it is said to be Relentless because all beings undergo karmic responses based on the offenses that they have committed, whether they be men, women, savages, old, young, honorable, or lowly; whether they be dragons, spirits, gods, or ghosts.
Fifth, it is said to be Relentless because offenders continually undergo ten thousand deaths and as many rebirths each day and night from the moment they first enter this hell and on through hundreds of
thousands of eons. During that time they seek even a moment’s relief but it never comes. Only when their karma is exhausted can they leave the hell and be born elsewhere.
Earth Store Bodhisattva said to the worthy mother, “That is a brief description of the Relentless Hell. If I were to speak extensively about the names of all the implements of punishment in the hells and all the sufferings there, I could not finish speaking in an entire eon.”
After hearing that, Lady Maya placed her palms together sorrowfully, made obeisance, and withdrew.
Right now the average lifespan of a human being is a bit over sixty years. This, of course, it is just an average which does not consider the exceptions: those who live to be a hundred or those who die at the age of one or two. Neither one is an average for most people. When Sakyamuni Buddha was in the world, the average lifespan was seventy to eighty years; now it is sixty to seventy years. At the beginning, a human lifespan is eighty-four thousand years. Every century the human lifespan decreases by one year, and man’s height diminishes by an inch. When the lifespan decreases to ten years, it will turn and again begin to increase until it reaches eighty-four thousand years. The period during which the lifespan diminishes is called a decreasing eon; the period in which it lengthens is called an increasing eon. One cycle of an increasing eon and a decreasing eon is called a kalpa, and one thousand of these constitute a small kalpa. Twenty small kalpas make a medium kalpa, and four medium kalpas constitute one great kalpa. Each of the four medium kalpas consists of the stages of forming, abiding, decaying, and emptiness. Each stage lasts one medium kalpa, which is equivalent to twenty small kalpas.
This world in which we live has its times of forming, abiding, decaying, and emptiness. Every world decays. Places that were dry land several thousands years ago are now submerged and no longer exist. Earthquakes eradicate entire villages, districts, or even countries. This is what is meant by when this world is destroyed, they find themselves in another world. It is not the case that when this world ends one’s karma in the hells is exhausted. Far from it! One simply moves to hells in another world, where the deeds done with the body find retribution. When that world is destroyed according to the stages in sequence, they pass on to another one. When that world, too, is destroyed, they move on to another one. In general, they move out of places that are destroyed and move onto places that are intact. When this world comes into being again, they return here. The situation involving Relentless retribution for offenses is like that. This is what is means by relentless, the retribution for offenses is continuous and never quits.
Moreover, five karmic responses account for the name Relentless. This hell is called Relentless, or Avici in Sanskrit, because of five events that occur due to the power of karma. What are the five relentless aspects? First, it is said to be Relentless because punishment is undergone day and night throughout many, or countless, eons without ceasing for a moment. There is no respite from the bitter retribution received due to one’s own karmic creation. Second, it is said to be Relentless because one person fills it in the same way that many people fill it. One person in this hell is as full as many people in it.
Third, it is said to be Relentless because repeated punishments continue without cease throughout years that stretch into limitless nayutas of eons. Those punishments are inflicted by instruments of torture such as forks and clubs. The body is both the tool for creating the karma and the tool for receiving the retribution. Or by eagles, serpents, wolves, and dogs; or by pounding, such as grating someone in a rice mill, grinding, sawing, drilling, chiseling someone’s bone marrow with iron, cutting and chopping someone’s bones to pieces; or by boiling someone in pot of oily liquids. Is that not miserable? Such as iron nets, iron ropes, iron asses, and iron horses; or by rawhide stripes bound around one’s head and molted iron poured over one’s body; or by meals of iron pellets when someone is hungry and drinks of molten iron when someone is thirsty for tea or water.
Fourth, it is said to be Relentless because all beings undergo karmic responses based on the offenses that they have committed, whether they be men, women, savages. Savages refer to tribes in peripheral regions, such as the barbarous people in various parts of China. In southern China, there were the Southern Barbarians. For example, Mencius said of Xu Xing, a native of Chu, “He is a Southern Barbarian with a tongue like a bird’s, which is not in the heritage of kings.” He talks the way a bird chirps. You have no idea what he is saying. In historical China, people in Shandong ( East Mountain), Shanshi ( West Mountain), Henan (Southern River), and Hebei ( Northern River) all spoke Mandarin. People south of Hunan ( Southern Lake) were called Southern Barbarians because they could not be understood by Mandarin speakers. We do not need to mention English, because the Chinese did not even understand each other then, hence southerners were called barbarians. The West and China have not established exchanges or communication then. The word for Barbarian contains the word “insect” because the southerners were considered snake-like. People in western China were called Chuan (Canine). The easterners were called “Yi” and northerners “Di”, which both contain the radical “canine” in it. Basically they were seen as transformed from dogs. The Chinese character for the “Jiang” people has the radical “goat” on top, that is to say they were also transformed from animals. There was also the Hu people.
Whether old, young, honorable, or lowly. At what age is considered old or young? Usually 80 or above is considered old age and ten years of age is a child. The honorable may be kings and the lowly may be ordinary citizens. Whether they be dragons, spirits, gods, or ghosts. All of them equally receive the retribution they deserve, making this the Relentless Hell.
Fifth, it is said to be Relentless because offenders continually undergo ten thousand deaths and as many rebirths each day and night from the moment they first enter this hell and on through hundreds of thousands of eons. When one dies, the Clever Breeze revives the offender but only for him to suffer and die again. Thus it is said myriad deaths and myriad births, continuously without cease. During that time they seek even a moment’s relief but it never comes. There is no respite for even as long a time as a thought. Only when their karma is exhausted can they leave the hell and be born elsewhere. When will such incessant suffering stop; when one’s karmic obstructions end. Hence this is the Relentless Hell.
Earth Store Bodhisattva said to the worthy mother Lady Maya, “That is a brief description of the Relentless Hell. If I were to speak extensively about the names of all the implements of punishment in the hells and all the sufferings there in detail, I could not finish speaking in an entire eon even if I want to.”
After hearing that, Lady Maya, Shakyamuni Buddha’s mother, placed her palms together and extremely sorrowfully, made obeisance to Earth Store Bodhisattva, and withdrew.