THE SAGELY CITY OF TEN THOUSAND BUDDHAS
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Universal Worthy's Conduct _

Chapter Thirty-Six. A Commentary by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua

Sutra:

Disciples of the Buddha, once the Bodhisattva Mahasattva dwells secured in these ten Dharmas, then he can perfect ten kinds of purities. What are the ten? They are: The purity of penetrating profound Dharmas; The purity of drawing near to good knowing advisors; The purity of protecting and upholding all Buddhas’ Dharmas; The purity of comprehending the realm of empty space; The purity of deeply entering the Dharma realm; The purity of contemplating boundless minds; The purity of having identical good roots with all Bodhisattvas; The purity of not attaching to kalpas; The purity of contemplating the three periods of time; And the purity of cultivating all Buddhas’ Dharmas. Those are the ten.

Commentary:

Disciples of the Buddha, once the Bodhisattva who is a Mahasattva, a great Bodhisattva among Bodhisattvas, dwells in these ten kinds of Dharmas, then he can perfect and be endowed with ten kindsof purities. What are the ten kinds of dharmas of purification? They are as follow: The purity of penetrating profound Dharmas. Understanding that all dharmas are not produced and not destroyed is a kind of purity. The purity of drawing near to good knowing advisors. Good advisors teach us to follow the rules strictly and rely upon the Dharma to cultivate. Evil advisors have deviant knowledge and deviant views and teach us not to follow the rules and not to cultivate according to the Dharma.

So, in cultivation, one should draw near to Good Knowing Advisors, and stay far away from Evil Knowing Advisors. In that way one can attain to purity--otherwise one won’t be able to. The purity of protecting and upholding all Buddhas’ Dharmas. As disciples of the Buddha we should at all times take protecting the Buddhadharma as our personal responsibility. We shouldn’t simply look on when someone is destroying the Buddhadharma, without voicing any objections. If we’re that way we have not done our best to protect the Dharma, which is our job. For that reason, we should guard and maintain all Dharma-doors proclaimed by the Buddhas, so that they will survive and the Proper Dharma will always be in the world.

The purity of comprehending the realm of empty space .

Basically there is not one thing,
So where can dust alight?

The underlying basis is therefore pure. The purity of deeply entering the Dharma realm, profoundly entering all Dharma Realms, and uniting in one substance with the entire Dharma Realm, which is another kind of purity. The purity of contemplating boundless minds. One contemplates how the basis of the limitless and boundlessly many minds of living beings is pure. The purity of having identical good roots with all Bodhisattvas. One wishes to identically cultivate the same good roots as all Bodhisattvas, so that upon accomplishing the good roots with Bodhisattvas are endowed, one at the same time attains to purity.

The purity of not attaching to kalpas --time divisions. For cultivators there are no long or short intervals of time. They have no need to attach to time. For example, when a Ch’an session is going on, you shouldn’t have false thinking about how the session isn’t over yet. Once the session is over, you’ll start being lax again. But if during the session you can be very energetic and apply effort with single-minded concentration and make your gung fu come together, when you gung fu has reached the utmost point, then you will very naturally open enlightenment. But it has to reach that utmost point. It’s the same as mountain-climbing: to reach the summit you have to take the final step. If there’s one step left before the top, you must take that one last step or you won’t reach the summit. If you go backwards instead, then it will be easy to take a fall and roll down the mountain.

You all know about the two Monks who are cultivating bowing once every third step--they are battling with birth and death right now. They keep ascending in their cultivation--going up and up--but then when the test arrives they don’t pass the test, and all they can do is begin the cultivation all over again from the start. They want to bring a halt to emotional love, to cut off desire and cast out love. They keep cutting it off and cutting it off, but when it gets cut off to the utmost, it rises up again. That’s the kind of struggle they are engaged in during this period. Why does emotional desire reemerge? It’s because false thinking arises. If there were no false thinking, then emotional love would be emptied as well. When it’s emptied, true and actual purity is revealed. So cultivators of the Way shouldn’t look forward to the Ch’an session being over. And even after the session, we can still continue to apply effort evenly and continually, until:

The waters vanish and the mountains end.
Then, when the wind turns back and the road turns around,
At the top of the hundred-foot pole one takes a further step.

Then one can return to one’s original face. The purity of contemplating the three periods of time. The Bodhisattva employs the Wisdom of Wonderful Contemplation to contemplate how past time, present time and future time all are pure without defilement. And the purity of cultivating all Buddhas’ Dharmas, which enables one to return to purity. Pure Dharma--doors are those of not having greed or defilement. That way you can be pure. But if you are greedy and defiled, greedy for emotion and greedy for love, greedy for wealth and greedy for sex, greedy for fame, greedy for profit--if you’re greedy for wealth, fame, sex, food, and sleep or else greedy for nice forms, nice sounds, nice smells, agreeable tastes, pleasant sensations of touch, the states of the five desires--all of that is defiled and you are not pure. You shouldn’t be greedy for anything. You shouldn’t have even the most subtle thoughts of greed, and then you’ll be pure, and your cultivation of all Dharmas of all Buddhas will be pure of well. Those are the ten kinds of Dharma-doors of purity.

Sutra:

Disciples of the Buddha, once the Bodhisattva Mahasattva dwells in these ten Dharmas, then he can perfect ten kinds of vast, great wisdom. What are the ten? They are: The wisdom to know the workings of all living beings’ minds; the wisdom to know all living beings’ karmic retributions; The wisdom to know all Buddhas’ Dharmas; The wisdom to know the purport of all profound principles of all Buddhadharmas; The wisdom to know all doors of Dharani; The wisdom to know all eloquence of phrasing; The wisdom of skill-in-means with language to know the sounds and modes of speech of all living beings; The wisdom to make his body appear universally within all worlds; The wisdom to universally appear reflected in all assemblies; And the wisdom to be endowed with all wisdom in every location of undergoing birth. Those are the ten.

Commentary:

Disciples of the Buddha, once the Bodhisattva who is a Mahasattva dwells in these ten kinds of Dharmas, then he can perfect ten kinds of vast, great wisdom. What are the ten? They are: The wisdom to know the workings of all living beings’ minds. One is able to know what living beings are thinking and intending to do. One knows all they do externally and all that happens internally in their minds with this kind of wisdom. the wisdom to know all living beings’ karmic retributions. One knows the kinds of karma they created that lead to their undergoing the corresponding retributions. The process of giving rise to delusions, creating karma, and undergoing retribution can’t be off by a hair, and one has the wisdom to truly know it--not just guess at it. One really opens the Wisdom Eye and illumines the prior causes and subsequent effects. The wisdom to know all Buddhas’ Dharmas, having the wisdom to understand all Dharmas spoken by every Buddha. All ten of these wisdoms spring from the previous ten dharmas of purity.

This Bodhisattva also has The wisdom to know and understand the purport and drift of all the most profound and difficult to understand principles of all Buddhadharmas. He also has The wisdom to know all doors of Dharani. “Dharani” is a Sanskrit word that means “uniting and holding,”

Uniting all dharmas,
Holding limitless meanings.

It also means uniting and holding precepts, samadhi, and wisdom while putting to rest greed, hatred, and stupidity. Uniting and holding the body, mouth and mind so that there is no violation through those three kinds of karma is another interpretation. This also refers to the Dharani-doors of the various kinds of mantras, for mantras unite all dharmas and hold limitless meanings. He also has The wisdom to know all eloquence of phrasing. He can understand and speak all the different languages of all countries without encountering any linguistic obstructions. He further has

The wisdom of skill-in-means with language to know the sounds and modes of speech of all living beings. He can expediently and cleverly reproduce whatever vocal sounds or cries or calls they utter, as well as understanding them all. He also has The wisdom and the spiritual penetrations which enable him to make his body appear by transformation universally within all worlds. And he has The wisdom and resulting spiritual penetrations to universally appear reflected in all assemblies to draw near to all the Buddhas and make offerings to those Thus Come Ones. And he has the wisdom to be endowed with all wisdom in every location of undergoing birth. Even when he is in the womb he is perfectly endowed with the Wisdom of All Wisdoms. Those are the ten kinds of inconceivable wisdom, also ten kinds of inconceivable spiritual penetrations.

Sutra :

Disciples of the Buddha, once the Bodhisattva Mahasattva dwells in these ten wisdoms, he then can gain entry to ten kinds of universal entrances. What are the ten? They are: All worlds entering into the path of a single hair; The path of a single hair entering into all worlds; The bodies of all living beings entering into a single body; A single body entering the bodies of all living beings; Ineffably many kalpas entering a single thought; A single thought entering ineffably many kalpas; All Buddhadharmas entering a single Dharma; A single Dharma entering all Buddhadharmas; Ineffably many locations entering a single location; A single location entering ineffably many locations; Ineffably many faculties entering a single faculty; A single faculty entering ineffably many faculties; All faculties entering non-faculties; Non-faculties entering all faculties; All thoughts entering a single thought; A single thought entering all thoughts; All spoken sounds entering a single spoken sounds; A single sound entering all spoken sounds; All three periods of time entering a single time; A single time entering all three periods of time. Those are the ten.

Commentary:

Universal Worth Bodhisattva again says: All you Disciples of the Buddha, once the Bodhisattva Mahasattva dwells in these ten wisdoms, he then can gain entry to ten kinds of universal entrances. He can certify to entrance to those ten kinds of states of universality. What are the ten? They are: All worlds entering into the path of a single hair, into one single hairpore; The path of a single hair entering into all worlds. One tiny hairpore can go to all worlds. This is an example of how:

The great appears within the small;
The small appears within the great;
Great and small are interfused and Unobstructed.

We ordinary people feel this state could never exist, but when you certify to the wisdom of spiritual penetrations of a Buddha’s state, this is a very commonplace occurrence. The bodies of all living beings entering into a single body; A single body entering the bodies of all living beings. This again is an example of how the one and many are unobstructed. Ineffably many kalpas entering a single thought; A single thought entering ineffably many kalpas­­­--as long a time as ineffably many great kalpas can contract to just one instant of thought, and that single thought can expand to fill ineffably many great kalpas. All Buddhadharmas entering a single, fundamental Dharma; A single, fundamental Dharma entering all Buddhadharmas; Ineffably many locations entering a single location; and also A single location entering ineffably many locations; Ineffably many faculties entering a single faculty; A single faculty entering ineffably many faculties; All faculties entering non-faculties; Non-faculties entering all faculties. They enter into nothingness, and from nothingness there further arise all faculties. All false thoughts entering a single thought; A single thought entering all thoughts; All spoken sounds entering a single spoken sounds; A single spoken sound entering all spoken sounds; All three periods of time entering a single time; A single time entering all three periods of time. Those are the ten kinds of states of universal entry.

Sutra:

Disciples of the Buddha, once the Bodhisattva Mahasattva has made such contemplations, he then dwells in ten kinds of supremely wondrous minds. What are the ten? They are: Dwelling in the supremely wondrous mind of all worldly language as non-language; Dwelling in the supremely wondrous mind of all thoughts of living beings having no place of reliance; Dwelling in the supremely wondrous mind of the ultimate realm of empty space; Dwelling in the supremely wondrous mind of the boundless Dharma realm; Dwelling in the supremely wondrous mind of all profoundly secret Buddhadharmas; Dwelling in the supremely wondrous mind of all deep and undiscriminating Dharmas; Dwelling in the supremely wondrous mind of casting out all doubts and delusions; Dwelling in the supremely wondrous mind of all worlds being level and equal without distinctions; Dwelling in the supremely wondrous mind of the sameness of all Buddhas of the three periods of time; And dwelling in the supremely wondrous mind of the limitlessness of all Buddhas’ powers. Those are the ten.

Commentary:

Disciples of the Buddha, once the Bodhisattva who is a Mahasattva--a great Bodhisattva among Bodhisattva--has made such contemplations of universal entry of the three periods of time with wisdom of spiritual penetrations and transformations, he then dwells in ten kinds of supremely wondrous minds. What are the ten? They are: Dwelling in the supremely wondrous mind of all worldly language as non-language. He understands whether there is speech or not.

The Bodhisattva also attains Dwelling in the supremely wondrous mind of all thoughts of living beings being non-existent and having no place of reliance. That is:

The path of language is cut off.
The place of the mind’s workings Is extinguished.

He is also Dwelling in the supremely wondrous mind of the ultimate, which is just like the realm of empty space; Dwelling in the supremely wondrous mind of the boundless Dharma realm; Dwelling in the inconceivable and supremely wondrous mind of all profoundly secret Buddhadharmas, and Dwelling in the supremely wondrous mind of all deep and undiscriminating Dharmas. The Bodhisattva also attains Dwelling in the supremely wondrous mind of casting out and no longer having all doubts and delusions; Dwelling in the supremely wondrous mind of all worlds being level and equal without distinctions; Dwelling in the supremely wondrous mind of the sameness of all Buddhas of the three periods of time; And dwelling in the supremely wondrous mind of the limitlessness of all Buddhas’ ten kinds of powers. Those are the ten kinds of supremely wondrous minds.

Sutra:

Disciples of the Buddha, once the Bodhisattva Mahasattva dwells in those ten kinds of supremely wondrous minds, he then obtains ten kinds of wisdoms of skill-in-means in Buddhadharmas. What are the ten? They are: The wisdom of skill-in-means to comprehend profound Buddhadharmas; The wisdom of skill-in-means to bring forth vast and great Buddhadharmas; The wisdom of skill-in-means to proclaim various kinds of Buddhadharmas; The wisdom of skill-in-means to enter the equality of Buddhadharmas; The wisdom of skill-in-means to clearly understand discriminated Buddhadharmas; The wisdom of skill-in-means to awaken to understanding of undiscriminated Buddhadharmas; The wisdom of skill-in-means to deeply enter adorning Buddhadharmas; The wisdom of skill-in-means to enter Buddhadharmas through a single expedient; The wisdom of skill-in-means to enter Buddhadharmas through limitless expedients; The wisdom of skill-in-means to know the non-differentiation of boundless Buddhadharmas; And the wisdom of skill-in-means to not retreat in one’s own mind and strength from all Buddhadharmas. Those are the ten.

Commentary:

Disciples of the Buddha, once the Bodhisattva Mahasattva dwells in those ten kinds of supremely wondrous minds, he then obtains ten kinds of wisdom of skill-in-means in Buddhadharmas. What are the ten? They are: The wisdom of expedient skill-in-means to comprehend and penetrate all the deep and profound Buddhadharmas spoken by all Buddhas. The wisdom of skill-in-means to bring forth vast and great Buddhadharmas; The wisdom of skill-in-means to be able to proclaim and speak various kinds of Buddhadharmas; The wisdom of skill-in-means to enter into the equality of all Buddhadharmas. The Bodhisattva also obtains The wisdom of expedient skill-in-means to clearly understand all dissimilar and discriminated Buddhadharmas; The wisdom of skill-in-means to awaken to understanding of non-different and undiscriminated Buddhadharmas; The wisdom of skill-in-means to deeply enter adorning Buddhadharmas; The wisdom of skill-in-means to enter Buddhadharmas through a single expedient; The wisdom of skill-in-means to enter Buddhadharmas through limitless expedients; The wisdom of skill-in-means to know the non-differentiation and non-difference of boundless Buddhadharmas; And the wisdom of expedient skill-in-means to be courageously vigorous and not retreat in one’s own mind and strength from all Buddhadharmas. Those are the ten.

Sutra:

Disciples of the Buddha, once the Bodhisattva Mahasattva has heard these Dharmas, he should bring forth the mind to revere, accept, and maintain them all. Why is that? The Bodhisattva Mahasattva who maintains these Dharmas, with slight expenditure of effort quickly attains Anuttarasamyaksambodhi. He becomes endowed with all Buddhadharmas in all respects the same as the Dharmas of all Buddhas of the three periods of time.

At that time, through the Buddha’s spiritual might, and because the Dharma is that way, throughout the ten directions there were world-systems many as fine motes of dust in ten ineffably many hundred thousand ten million nayutas of Buddha Kshetras that experienced the six kinds of quakes. There rained down all sorts of heaven-surpassing clouds of flowers, clouds of incense, clouds of ointments, raiment, canopies, banners, streamers, mani jewels and so forth, including clouds of every kind of adornment. There rained down clouds of groups of musical instruments. There rained down clouds of all Bodhisattvas. There rained down clouds of ineffably many form marks of Thus Come Ones. There rained down clouds of ineffably many exclamations of praises of all Thus Come Ones. There rained down clouds of sounds spoken by Thus Come Ones that filled all Dharma realms. There rained down clouds of ineffably many increasings of Bodhi. There rained down clouds of ineffably many radiating lights. And there rained down clouds of ineffably many spiritual powers to speak Dharma. Just as in this world-system with its set of four continents the Thus Come One was seen in the Bodhisattvas’ palace under the Bodhi tree in the Bodhi way place accomplishing equal and proper enlightenment and proclaiming this Dharma, so, too, in all world-systems throughout the ten directions it was also the same way.

Commentary:

All of you Disciples of the Buddha, once the Bodhisattva Mahasattva has heard these ten Dharmas of wisdom of expedient skill-in-means, then he as well as all of you should bring forth the mind to revere, accept, and maintain them all. Why is that the case? It’s because The Bodhisattva Mahasattva who maintains and cultivates these Dharmas just described, with only a very slight expenditure of effort quickly attains Anuttarasamyaksambodhi. He very rapidly achieves the Buddha Fruition of Unsurpassed Proper and Equal Right Enlightenment. He becomes endowed in his own mind with all Buddhadharmas and is able to speak them all. They are in all respects the same as the Dharmas of all Buddhas, the Dharma spoken by all Buddhas of the three periods of time.

At that time, through the Buddha’s great awesome spiritual might, and because when the wonderful Dharma of the Flower Adornment Sutra is spoken it is that way, therefore, throughout the ten directions there were world-systems as many as fine motes of dust in ten ineffably many hundred thousand ten million nayutas of Buddha Kshetras that experienced the six kinds of quakes. At one and the same time they all cracked, roared, and crashed, trembled, surged, and buckled, quaking in those six kinds of ways. There further rained down, just like in a downpour of rain from the sky, all sorts of precious heaven-surpassing clouds of flowers, along with precious clouds of incense, clouds of ointments, as well as precious clouds of raiment, canopies, banners, streamers, mani jewels and so forth, including precious clouds of every kind of adornment. In addition, There rained down precious clouds of groups of musical instruments. There rained down precious clouds of all Bodhisattvas. And There rained down precious clouds which were full of ineffably many exclamations of praises of all Thus Come Ones. Inside those clouds the Buddhas were constantly being praised.

There also rained down clouds of sounds spoken by Thus Come Ones that filled all Dharma realms. Furthermore, There rained down clouds of ineffably many adornments of world-realms, and There rained down clouds of ineffably many increasings of good roots for Bodhi. There rained down clouds of ineffably many radiating lights. And there rained down precious clouds of ineffably many spiritual powers to speak Dharma.

Just as in this Saha world-system with its set of four great continents:

The Four Great Continents

1) Purvavideha in the East

2) Jambudvipa in the South.

3) Aparagodaniya in the West.

4) Uttarakuru in the North.

the Thus Come One was seen in the Bodhisattvas’ palace where the Bodhisattvas were, under the Bodhi tree in the Bodhi way place, and the Buddha was accomplishing equal and proper enlightenment and proclaiming this Dharma, so, too, in all world-systems throughout the ten directions it was also the same way. In all other world systems the same auspicious portents were happening.

Sutra:

At that time, through the Buddha’s spiritual might, and because the Dharma is that way, in each of the ten directions, from further than world-systems many as the fine motes of dust in ten ineffably many Buddha kshetras away, there were Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas many as the fine motes of dust in ten Buddha kshetras who came to that land. They filled the ten directions and said these words: “ Good indeed, good indeed, disciple of the Buddha, that you are able to speak this profound Dharma of all Buddhas’, Thus Come Ones’, most great vows and bestowals of predictions. Disciple of the Buddha, all of us have the same name, Universal Worthy, and each of us has come from a universally supreme world-system where a universal banner self-mastery Thus Come One is, to arrive at this land. All of us through the Buddha’s spiritual might, in every single location, proclaim this Dharma.

All that is spoken is just the same as here in this assembly with its multitudes. It is all the same, with no elaboration or omission. We have all received the Buddha’s awesome spiritual power to come to this way place and give you certification. And just as all we Bodhisattvas many as the fine motes of dust in ten Buddha kshetras have come to this way place to give certification, in all of the world-systems throughout the ten directions it is also exactly the same way.”

At that time Universal Worthy Bodhisattva Mahasattva, through the Buddha’s spiritual might, and through the power of his own good roots, contemplated in the ten directions throughout the Dharma realm, and from a wish to disclose the Bodhisattva conduct, from a wish to proclaim the Thus Come One’s realm of Bodhi, from a wish to speak of the realm of great vows, from a wish to tell the number of kalpas of all world-systems, from a wish to explain all Buddhas’ appearing in accord with time, from a wish to describe all Thus Come Ones’ appearing in accord with living beings whose roots have matured, to inspire them to make offerings; From a wish to make clear how when Thus Come Ones appear in the world their work is not in vain; From a wish to make clear that from good roots which are planted, rewards are certainly obtained; And from a wish to show how Bodhisattvas of great awesome virtue make their shapes appear before all living beings and speak the Dharma for them so they become enlightened, spoke verses saying:

Commentary:

At that time, through the Buddha’s spiritual might, and because when the Dharma is spoken it should be that way, therefore, in each of the ten directions, from further than world-systems many as the fine motes of dust in ten ineffably many Buddha kshetras away, there were Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas many as the fine motes of dust in ten Buddha kshetras who came to that land, the Saha World. They, the great Bodhisattvas, filled the ten directions and said these words.

They said, “ Good indeed, good indeed Universal Worthy Bodhisattva, you disciple of the Buddha, that you are able to speak this subtle and wonderful profound Dharma of all Buddhas’, Thus Come Ones’, most great vows and bestowals of predictions. Disciple of the Buddha, all of us have the same name as you. We are all called Universal Worthy, and each of us has come from a universally supreme world-system where a universal banner self-mastery Thus Come One is, to arrive at this land, the Saha World. All of us can, through the Buddha’s great, awesome spiritual might, in every single location, proclaim this wonderful Dharma of all Buddhas’ most great vows and bestowals of predictions, just as you are doing.

All of the Dharma that is spoken is just the same as here in this Dharma assembly with its great multitudes as vast as the sea. This Dharma as it is being spoken throughout the world-systems of the ten directions is all the same as here, with no elaboration or omission. Nothing is added or subtracted. we, all the Bodhisattvas who have come, have all received the Buddha’s great, awesome spiritual power to come to the Flower Adornment Dharma Assembly in this way place and give you certification as you speak this Dharma. And just as all we Bodhisattvas many as the fine motes of dust in ten Buddha kshetras have come to this way place to give certification, in all of the world-systems throughout the ten directions it is also exactly the same way. In all of them just as many of us Bodhisattvas have gone to give certification.”

At that time Universal Worthy Bodhisattva Mahasattva--a great Bodhisattva among Bodhisattvas-- through the Buddha’s great awesome spiritual power, and through the power of his own good roots planted in the past, contemplated in the ten directions throughout the Dharma realm, and from a wish to disclose all the Dharma-doors of Bodhisattva conduct, from a wish to proclaim the Thus Come One’s realm of Bodhi--Dharma--doors for enlightening to the Way; from a wish to speak of the Dharma-doors of the realm of great vows made by Bodhisattvas; from a wish to tell the number of kalpas of coming into being, dwelling, going bad and disappearing of all world-systems, from a wish to explain the cause and conditions for all Buddhas’ appearing in accord with time, from a wish to describe all Thus Come Ones’ appearing in accord with living beings whose roots have matured--when the Buddha encounters living beings whose roots are ripe, he appears to teach and transform those living beings. to inspire them to make offerings to the Buddha, which will increase their blessings and wisdom.

Also, From a wish to make clear how when Thus Come Ones appear in the world their work--their merit and virtue--is not in vain; From a wish to make clear that from good roots which are planted the according rewards are certainly obtained; And from a wish to show how Bodhisattvas of great awesome virtue make their shapes appear before all living beings and speak the Dharma for them so they become enlightened--Universally Worthy Bodhisattva therefore spoke verses to express himself again, saying

Sutra:

I . The Universality of Conduct

You all should be delighted
And, abandoning all coverings,
With one mind reverently hear
Of Bodhisattvas’ vows and conduct.

Past Bodhisattvas’ Conduct

How all past Bodhisattvas,
Supreme lions among men,
Used to cultivate and practice
I now will state in order.

And I will describe all kalpas’ numbers,
All world-systems and all karma,
And how the incomparable honored ones
Make appearance among them.

Commentary:

Universal Worthy Bodhisattva said, You all should be delighted, really happy, purify your minds, And abandoning all coverings of stupidity and false thinking, rid yourselves of your mad thoughts and wild natures and all occluding obstructions. Concentrated and With one mind you should very respectfully and reverently hear the Dharma I’m going to speak for you Of Bodhisattvas’ great vows made in the past and the doors of conduct which they cultivated. How all past Bodhisattvas, Supreme lions among men, used to cultivate and practice, I now will state in order. I’ll describe those Dharma-doors of practice for you in very orderly succession. And I will describe all kalpas’ numbers, the short and long intervals of time in All world-systems, along with how those world-systems come into being, dwell, decay and disappear. And I’ll tell you about all the workings of retribution and repayment involved in karma, and how the incomparable honored ones, the Buddhas, become Buddhas and make appearance among them, within all world-systems.

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