The Wondrous Adornments
of the Rulers of the Worlds
Chapter One, Part Two
A Commentary by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua_
At that time, Celestial King Bright Banner of Delight in the Dharma received the Buddha’s awesome spiritual power, universally contemplated the multitudes of the Heavens of Lesser Vastness, the Heavens of Limitless Vastness, and the Heavens of Vast Fruition, and spoke the following verse:
At that time, Celestial King Bright Banner of Delight in the Dharma from the Four Dhyana Heavens in the Form Realm received the Buddha’s awesome spiritual power. He universally and extensively contemplated all the multitudes of gods of the Heavens of Lesser Vastness, the Heavens of Limitless Vastness, and the Heavens of Vast Fruition, and spoke the following verse to praise the Buddha’s meritorious virtues, deepen the faith of sentient beings, and help beings understand the principle involved here.
This state of the Buddha is inconceivable,
Unfathomable by any ordinary beings.
He pervasively inspires faith and understanding.
His profuse and joyous aspirations are unending.
This state of the Buddhas is inconceivable. This Celestial King praises the Buddha. “The” can also be translated as “all”, which would then refer to the Buddhas of the ten directions. “The” refers to our Original Teacher, Sakyamuni Buddha. When we explain it as the Buddhas of the ten directions, we are speaking in terms of the “many.” When we explain it as Sãkyamuni Buddha, we are speaking in terms of the “one.” The word “all” can be explained as “many” or as “one.”
Someone protests, “Dharma Master, you’re mistaken in lecturing this way. Everyone explains the word “all” as referring to all Buddhas of the ten directions. But you’ve explained it as meaning only one Buddha.” That’s right. You can explain it in terms of “many,” and I will explain it in terms of “one.” You talk about your “many,” and I’ll talk about my “one.” Why do we want to talk about so many? One isn’t too few, so why bother to talk about so many? But, if we were to modify the idea of the one, even one is gone. What you are translating as “all” can also be translated as an article, such as “a,” “an,” or “the.” “The” describes one Buddha. Which Buddha? No Buddha. Although there’s no Buddha, he’s just this Buddha. This Buddha hasn’t gone to the ten directions, nor has he come into a mote of dust. He’s just this Buddha. You say, “But there’s no such Buddha!” If there isn’t this Buddha, how could there be any other Buddhas? Think it over. This Buddha is the mother of all Buddhas, the most honored among all sages, the god among gods, the sage among sages. He’s just this Buddha. Therefore, the text says, “This state of the Buddha is inconceivable.” In what ways is it inconceivable? Think it over. Once you think it over, it becomes conceivable. If you cannot think about it, it’s inconceivable. It cannot be conceived by the mind, nor expressed in words. What is inconceivable about this state? This is a state of there being no states. Originally it was this way; originally it was not more or less, not great or small. What kind of state could there be? If you insist that there is a state, you are being attached to marks. “Inconceivable” means there is no state whatsoever. The Buddhas have transcended states. The Buddhas are basically identical to us. Don’t “put a head atop a head,” thinking, “Oh, all Buddhas…” Don’t go looking outside. All Buddhas are found within our own nature.
“The more this Dharma Master speaks, the farther off he gets. He doesn’t know how to explain the word “all.” Then he said there is no state. If there is no state, why does the Sutra talk about a state?”
Well, where is this state, anyway? Show me. The last words of this line say very clearly, it is “inconceivable.” If there were a state, it would be conceivable. Because there is no state, it is inconceivable. “All dharmas are characterized by emptiness.” That is the state of all Buddhas. If all dharmas are empty, what state could there be? I’d better not talk so much. The more I talk, the less we are able to find the boundaries. Therefore, I’ll come back to the text.
The Buddha’s state is unfathomable by any ordinary beings. Not only are you and I unable to fathom this kind of state, none of the sentient beings in the nine dharma realms, from the Bodhisattvas down to hell-beings, hungry ghosts, and animals, can know the Buddha’s state.
Another verse in the Flower Adornment Sutra says:
Anyone who wishes to know the Buddha’s state
Should make his mind as pure as space.
If you want to understand the Buddha’s state, you should purify your mind. It has to be very clean, without the slightest speck of dust. If you can be like empty space, you will know the Buddha’s state. The Buddha’s state is emptiness. But that emptiness goes beyond emptiness to the point that even that which is empty is gone. That is the Buddha’s state. For that reason I said there’s nothing. How can you say that I have spoken incorrectly? There is a basis for my argument. I wasn’t making groundless claims. Now you realize that I haven’t spoken incorrectly; it was you who was engaging in so much false thinking. You don’t understand the principle of all dharmas being characterized by emptiness.
No one is able to understand this state. He pervasively inspires faith and understanding. In all places, the Buddha causes sentient beings to understand and bring forth faith. His profuse and joyous aspirations are unending. The Celestial King with profuse aspirations understands that the Buddha’s state is inconceivable and yet unending. Although there’s nothing to this kind of state, nonetheless it is boundless and inexhaustible. This kind of state is far-reaching and all-encompassing. Every possible kind of state in this world is included, such as blowing wind, flowing water, chiming bells, booming drums, and on to subtle things like droning mosquitoes. All such states are the Buddha’s state. If you understand, all of them are the Buddha’s state. If you don’t understand, all of them are the states of sentient beings.
If sentient beings are able to accept the Dharma,
The Buddha’s awesome spiritual strength will guide them,
Letting them constantly behold the Buddhas before them.
Celestial King Ocean of Adornments thus perceives.
If sentient beings are able to accept the Dharma. This verse begins with a hypothetical phrase, because when this verse was spoken, it may not have been evident if there were such beings who would be able to accept the Dharma or not. It wasn’t for sure they were ready right then, but they were probably just about ready to accept the Buddha’s Dharma. Then the Buddha’s awesome spiritual strength will guide them. The Buddha uses his great spiritual power to guide them, enabling them to advance step by step on the path of Buddhadharma. He guides them skillfully and gradually. This means the Buddha tries to teach them with one expedient means, and if sentient beings are not receptive to it, he switches to another expedient means to see if they will be receptive to that. The Buddha uses all kinds of expedient means to teach and guide sentient beings, so that they can progress from delusion to wisdom, and from wisdom to enlightenment.
The Buddha guides sentient beings, letting them constantly behold the Buddhas before them. When their eyes are open, they get to see the Buddhas. When their eyes are closed, they get to see the Buddhas. When their eyes are neither open nor closed, they still see the Buddha. They constantly get to see the Buddhas, even when they don’t want to see them. The old woman from the eastern part of the city was a case in point. What she feared most was seeing the Buddha. However, when she had her eyes open, she saw the Buddha before her. She quickly closed her eyes, but she still saw the Buddha before her. She ran to a corner and faced the wall, thinking there would be no way the Buddha could appear before her. But still the Buddha was right in front of her. She ran everywhere trying to hide from the Buddha, not wishing to see him, but no matter where she ran she couldn’t avoid him. The Buddha appeared before her wherever she ran. Someone like her has affinities with the Buddha. Even though she didn’t want the Buddha to save her, it was impossible to avoid it. There was no way to run away.
Celestial King Ocean of Adornments thus perceives. He sees this kind of state. The awesome spiritual strength of the Buddha is inconceivable, and sentient beings have no way of understanding it. We are all sentient beings. Although we beings are not able to understand the Buddha, the Buddha can understand us. No matter who you are, the Buddha can understand all the thoughts in your mind. The Vajra Sutra says, “The Thus Come One completely knows and sees all the different kinds of thoughts in sentient beings’ minds.” The Buddha thoroughly understands and sees what you are thinking and what you like. Since Celestial King Ocean of Adornments understood that state, he spoke the above verse.
The nature of all dharmas is without reliance.
The Buddhas’ appearances in the world are like that too.
They go to all realms of existence and yet rely on nothing.
Supreme Wisdom contemplates this meaning.
The nature of all dharmas is without reliance. The nature of all dharmas is emptiness. There is nothing at all. Since it is empty, there is no need to rely on anything. What would emptiness rely on? There is no place it relies on. The Buddhas’ appearances in the world are like that too. The Buddhas’ appearing in the world is like the Dharma nature, also empty. The Buddhas make all of existence empty. Since there is no existence, how could there be emptiness? Therefore, the Buddhas empty all of existence.
They go to all realms of existence and yet rely on nothing. The Buddha doesn’t rely on existence, because he is devoid of marks. The Buddha teaches beings to be without a mark of self, of others, of beings, and of life spans. When we separate from marks, we can become enlightened. If the Buddha himself still retained those marks, wouldn’t that be a great contradiction? Therefore, the Buddha empties all marks.
Supreme Wisdom contemplates this meaning. Celestial King Supreme Wisdom is able to perceive and understand this meaning.
General statements and detailed explanations
All express truth in the primary sense.
General statements don’t pin down specific meanings, whereas detailed explanations express subtleties. Yet both of these can express the ultimate truth. In the past when I listened to lectures on the sutras, I especially listened to those who didn’t know how to explain them. The less they knew about explaining the sutras, the more I wanted to listen to them. I didn’t listen to those who spoke well. I particularly wanted to listen to those who couldn’t speak well. Why was that? I believed that right within what was not so good, if I could find good points, then that would be the Way.
I remember when I was thirteen or fourteen, lectures were being given on the Earth Store Sutra at a place five li [about 1.7 miles] from my house, and I attended them every day. I didn’t ride in a car; I walked there. It took one hour to walk there, and one hour to walk back. The Dharma Master who was lecturing was illiterate, and so he mispronounced certain words, just like the Dharma Master today, who mispronounced a character. Someone wrote on the board taifeng xi gang [a typhoon hit Hong Kong], and he mispronounced the character xi as long [dragon] because it had a “dragon” radical on top of it. However, I found a lot of meaning in that. Why? I remembered that the Book of Changes [Yijing]
says, “Clouds are associated with dragons, and the wind is associated with tigers.” A typhoon is accompanied by clouds, and with clouds there are bound to be dragons.
The Dharma Flower Sutra has the following lines, about Dharma Masters who are Bodhisattvas: “Born from the Buddha’s mouth, born by transformation from the Dharma, they obtain a share of the Buddha’s Dharma.” Last night the Dharma Master remembered the quote and dared to lecture on it, and considering the kind of person he is, that’s not bad. We should learn from everyone. How should we learn?
We can model ourselves after those who are good.
We can guard ourselves from following those who
If we think someone is right, we can follow his example. If we think someone is wrong, we should not follow the path he is taking. That’s important. We should investigate together. If you have an opinion, bring it up and we will discuss it in public.
Whatever sentient beings’ hearts desire
Can be realized by the Buddha’s spiritual might,
Despite how incredibly different individuals are.
This is the sea of liberation of King Banner of Wisdom.
Whatever sentient beings’ hearts desire means whatever their preferences might be. Therefore, we speak of “constantly according with sentient beings,” which is one of the Ten Magnificent Vows of Universal Worthy Bodhisattva:
1. To respectfully bow to all Buddhas;
2. To praise the Thus Come Ones;
3. To extensively cultivate the making of offerings;
4. To repent of karmic hindrances and reform;
5. To follow along with and rejoice in merit and virtue;
6. To request the turning of the Dharma wheel;
7. To request that the Buddhas dwell in the world;
8. To always follow the Buddhas in study;
9. To constantly accord with beings;
10. To universally make transferences.
1. To respectfully bow to all Buddhas. There are seven kinds of bowing. One kind is arrogant bowing. If one is arrogant, it would be better if one didn’t bow at all. What does that mean? Bowing as fast as a rocket is one example. When we bow like that, our mind can’t engage in contemplation. Our bodies are simply going through the motions. Someone who bows like that doesn’t have time to make the contemplation, “Right now I am bowing to the Buddhas, the Dharma, and the Sangha of the ten directions.” She rushes through the motions as if she were astride a rocket. Her head doesn’t even touch the bowing cushion before she springs up again to make another bow. She bows so hastily that it appears she is in a mad rush to go some place else. It’s as if she can’t wait.
Another kind is bowing where body and mind are respectful. Your mind contemplates that you are in fact bowing to the Buddhas, and your body bows in a very proper and orderly manner. You bow in a natural, relaxed way, without haste. You aren’t in a race. Bowing is not a foot race to see who can run faster. I see that some of you are able to squeeze three bows in the time it takes most people to make one bow. You don’t bow in accord with the meaning of the verse of contemplation. I don’t know who taught you to bow like that.
Your body and mind should be reverent. It’s the same act of bowing, but whereas some people gain merit from doing it, you don’t gain any merit when you do it. Your bowing is done in vain. Moreover, there is bowing to the Dharma Realm, that is, to all Buddhas throughout the Dharma Realm. That’s the idea behind Universal Worthy Bodhisattva’s vow to respectfully bow to all Buddhas. Beginning students in Buddhism should look up the seven kinds of bowing and study them. I don’t have time to discuss all of them today. If you would like to know about them, you should study them yourself. If you don’t want to understand them, then you can go on being muddled.
The other vows of Universal Worthy Bodhisattva are:
2. To praise the Thus Come Ones. This means extolling the Thus Comes Ones of the ten directions.
3. To extensively cultivate the making of offerings. He makes offerings on a vast, extensive scale.
4. To repent of karmic hindrances and reform. He repents of his own karmic obstacles.
5. To follow along with and rejoice in merit and virtue. He rejoices in the merit and virtue of all Buddhas.
6. To request the turning of the Dharma wheel. He requests the Buddhas, the Bodhisattvas, the Arhats, and the worthy sages of the Sangha to turn the Dharma wheel.
7. To request that the Buddhas dwell in the world. He asks all Buddhas to long abide in the world.
8. To always follow the Buddhas in study. He constantly learns with the Buddhas.
9. To constantly accord with beings. He always complies with sentient beings’ wishes.
10. To universally make transferences. He dedicates all of his merit and virtue to sentient beings throughout the ten directions, not wanting to keep any of it for himself.
Now the sutra text says, “Whatever sentient beings’ hearts desire,” whatever sentient beings like and wish for, can be realized by the Buddha’s spiritual might. The Buddha is able to fulfill all beings’ wishes. Whatever they want, the Buddha will make appear, despite how incredibly different individuals are. Sentient beings’ minds are all different. Each has his or her own way of thinking. This dissimilarity is inconceivable, and there’s no way to understand it. This is the sea of liberation of King Banner of Wisdom. Celestial King Wisdom Banner has attained this dharma door of the sea of liberation.
Take a look at sentient beings’ minds. Some have faith in Buddhism, while others do not. Some half believe and half doubt. Isn’t it strange? Some people, having listened to the principles in the sutras, are inspired, have faith, and investigate the Buddhadharma. For others, the Dharma goes in one ear and out the other; they don’t retain any of it. Some people think about eating good food when they are listening to the sutras. Some feel that listening to sutras is not as pleasant as drinking wine. Some feel that listening to sutras is not as enjoyable as drinking coffee. Others think, “I’d much rather be dancing than listening to this lecture.” Some people think, “Watching a movie is far superior to listening to the sutra.” They all have different thoughts. Some people listen to the sutra and think, “Ah, I’ve come to understand many principles today.” They feel as if they have obtained a precious gem. But others find the entire lecture boring and meaningless. Some people would rather go on a date with their friend. They think, “Listening to the sutras is not as much fun as dating.
You have to sit still, and it’s so cold.” Take a look at all the different thoughts going through the minds of the people listening to the lecture right now. Some people’s fantasies have taken them all the way to the Western Land of Ultimate Bliss. Others’ daydreams have taken them to the Eastern Land of Vaidurya Light. Other people have reached the Southern World of Creation of Jewels in their false thinking. And still others have idle thoughts that have gone off to the Northern World of Accomplishment. Since everyone’s thoughts are different, the sutra
says, “despite how incredibly different individuals are.” The range of their individual differences is hard to imagine.
All lands that ever existed in the past
Appear within a single pore on a person’s body.
This is due to the great spiritual powers of all Buddhas.
Delight in Still Quiescence proclaims thus.
All lands that ever existed in the past. Although the text says “past,” there is actually no past, no present, and no future. The Vajra Sutra says, “The three aspects of thought cannot be attained. Thoughts of the past cannot be attained. Thoughts of the present cannot be attained. Thoughts of the future cannot be attained.” Why can’t thoughts of the past be apprehended? The past is already gone; it no longer exists. You talk about the present, but the present is never still. By the time you say, “This is the present,” the present has moved on. Then you say, “This is the present,” but as soon as you say that, the present is gone again. It doesn’t stay around. Hence, thoughts of the present cannot be grasped. As for the future, it has not yet come and therefore cannot be got at. You may search for the three aspects of thought, but they are unattainable.
When the three thoughts are not put to rest,
even water is hard to digest.
When the Five Contemplations are understood,
you can digest even gold.
If you retain thoughts of past, present, and future, you won’t be able to accept even a single cup of water offered to you by a donor. There will be no way for you to digest this offering. However, it will be different if you understand the Five Contemplations. “The Buddha told the Bhikshus: while eating, observe the Five Contemplations.” If you understand those, you can digest even gold. When left-home people eat, they engage in the Three Recollections and the Five Contemplations.
The Three Recollections:
1. I vow to cut off all evil.
2. I vow to cultivate all good.
3. I vow to save all beings.
The Five Contemplations
1. Consider the amount of work involved to bring the food to where it is eaten.
2. Consider whether or not one’s virtuous conduct is sufficient to enable one to accept the offering.
3. Guard the mind from transgression, of which greed and so forth are the principal cause.
4. Properly taken, the food is like medicine to keep the body from wasting away.
5. This food is accepted only in order to realize the Way.
If you understand the Five Contemplations, you will be able to digest even gold [i.e. the finest and most expensive delicacies], not to mention water! And so, if you have done away with the three thoughts of past, present, and future, you will have no problem in receiving offerings. But if you haven’t gotten rid of those three thoughts, then even an offering of a cup of water is difficult to accept.
All the infinitely many Buddhalands that existed in the past appear within a single pore on a person’s body. When you hear about how all Buddhalands manifest within a single pore, you think, “How can such a state be possible?” But once you gain the Five Eyes and the Six Spiritual Powers, you will find this very ordinary and not strange at all.
This is due to the great spiritual powers of all Buddhas. This kind of state is due to the great spiritual power of the Buddhas of the ten directions. The Buddha doesn’t claim to be higher or lower than anyone. All religions are encompassed within Buddhism, because Buddhism takes the Dharma Realm as its nature. Who can run outside of the Dharma Realm? Nobody can. Therefore, Buddhism takes the Dharma Realm as its principle. The wonder of the Flower Adornment Sutra in particular lies in the fact that it takes the Dharma Realm as its principle. That is why it is so wonderful. The Buddha said, “All beings have the Buddha nature and can become Buddhas.” A few days ago, a visiting layperson remarked that Dogen said those words. But he is misinformed. Dogen wouldn’t have been able to utter those words. The Buddha said them a long time ago.
The Celestial King named Delight in Still Quiescence proclaims this principle thus.
The inexhaustible sea of all dharma doors
Comes together as a single dharma in the Way-place.
This is the Dharma nature of which the Buddhas speak.
Wisdom Eye understands this expedient device.
The inexhaustible sea of all dharma doors. There are 84,000 dharma doors, each of which further divides into 84,000 dharma doors, and this state keeps on multiplying layer upon layer, until there are boundlessly many dharma doors. There is an inexhaustible sea of dharma doors—ineffably, ineffably many of them. This sea of all these dharma doors comes together as a single dharma in the Way-place. They converge, connect, and become one. Infinitely many dharma doors converge to become one dharma door; a single dharma door unfolds into infinitely many dharma doors. This is the Dharma nature of which the Buddhas speak. One is many; many are one. The one, the many, and the limitless: this is the Dharma that ãÁkyamuni Buddha proclaims.
Wisdom Eye understands this expedient device. Celestial King Wisdom Eye has attained this passage into liberation, a samadhi of the inexhaustible sea of dharma doors. Therefore, he understands this expedient device.
He abides in every land of the ten directions,
And speaks Dharma in each of them.
Yet physically, the Buddha neither comes nor goes.
Thus is the state of Delight in Revolving Wisdom.
He abides in every land of the ten directions. Our world is not the only world there is. There are infinitely many worlds throughout the ten directions. There is this world, that world, infinitely many worlds; this land, that land, infinitely many lands. Mentioning them in general, the text refers to “every land of the ten directions.” In all those Buddhalands, we see the Buddha speaking Dharma. And he speaks Dharma in each of them. Since there is a Buddha speaking Dharma in each of those lands, has the Buddha gone to each of those lands? He hasn’t. Yet physically, the Buddha neither comes nor goes. The Vajra Sutra explains the meaning of the Thus Come One, saying, “There is no place from which he comes, and no place to which he goes. Therefore, he is called the Thus Come One.” Thus is the state of Delight in Revolving Wisdom. Celestial King Delight in Revolving Wisdom understands this state.
The Buddha contemplates worldly dharmas as reflections,
And enters into their profoundly mysterious aspects.
He speaks of the eternally still nature of all dharmas.
Adept at Nurturing considers and perceives thus.
The Buddha contemplates worldly dharmas as reflections. He regards mundane phenomena as being like illusions and transformations. This is as the Vajra Sutra says:
All conditioned dharmas
Are like dreams, illusions, bubbles, and shadows;
Like dew and like a lightning flash.
You should contemplate them thus.
The Buddha looks upon the world as a lightning flash or as a reflected image, both of which are ephemeral and therefore unreal. But right within worldly dharmas, the Buddha is able to propagate the Buddhadharma, and enters into their profoundly mysterious aspects. He reaches the most inconceivable state, so mysterious and wonderful that people cannot see it. He speaks of the eternally still nature of all dharmas. The inherent nature of all dharmas is still and quiet.
The still quiescence of dharmas
Cannot be conveyed through words.
All dharmas are quiescent; they cannot be expressed in words. That which cannot be spoken is the quiescent nature of dharmas. Adept at Nurturing considers and perceives thus. Celestial King Adept at Nurturing understands this state.
The Buddha is proficient in understanding every state.
According to sentient beings’ faculties, he lets fall a rain of Dharma.
He shows them the inconceivable, essential door of transcendence.
The god Still and Serene enlightens and enters thus.
The Buddha is proficient in understanding every state. There is nothing that the Buddha doesn’t know, understand, and penetrate. There is no feat of which he is incapable. He is skilled in understanding all states and all sentient beings’ dispositions. According to sentient beings’ faculties, he lets fall a rain of Dharma. Sentient beings are like flowers, grass, and trees. Trees with large roots are able to take in a lot of rain, while the grass takes in less rain. Likewise, sentient beings with deep and thick roots of goodness are able to take in more Dharma rain, while sentient beings with shallow roots take in less Dharma rain.
He shows them the inconceivable, essential door of transcendence. The Buddha reveals to them the inconceivably wonderful, most essential dharma door of transcending the world. The god Still and Serene enlightens and enters thus. Such is the state that this Celestial King comprehends.
With great kindness and compassion, the World Honored One
Appears among us so as to benefit sentient beings.
He evenly sprinkles the rain of Dharma to fill each vessel.
The god Pure Brightness proclaims thus.
With great kindness and compassion, the World Honored One. The Buddha is honored within and beyond the world. He constantly uses a heart of great compassion to teach and transform sentient beings. The Buddha forgives them and doesn’t hold their faults against them. Buddhism is unlike other religions that claim, “If you believe in me, then even if you commit offenses you will be born in heaven. If you don’t believe in me, then even if you do meritorious deeds you will still fall into hell.” That kind of reasoning is totally illogical. It is a kind of “bandits’ law” in that it is unreasonable.
The Buddha’s approach is that even if beings slander or insult the Buddha, he still pardons them. However, those who slander the Buddha create their own offenses. The Buddha does not slap offenses on them. They create their own. With great kindness and compassion, the World Honored One constantly appears among us in the world so as to benefit sentient beings. / He evenly sprinkles the rain of Dharma to fill each vessel. The Buddha is most egalitarian. When he speaks Dharma, sentient beings individually obtain the benefits that are due them. Bodhisattvas obtain the benefits befitting Bodhisattvas; Arhats obtain the benefits befitting Arhats; Bhikshus and Bhikshunis obtain the benefits befitting Bhikshus and Bhikshunis; upasakas and upasikas obtain the benefits befitting Upasakas and Upasikas. Each obtains his or her benefits. It’s as if they have vessels that get filled up with Dharma rain. Big vessels can contain more rain; small vessels hold less rain. The god Pure Brightness proclaims thus. That Celestial King can expound on this state.
When we study the Buddhadharma, we must have some patience. Every day we learn a little bit. After a long period of study, great wisdom will unfold and you will understand the Buddhadharma. The Buddhadharma is like the waters of the ocean. When your wisdom unfolds, it is expansive and boundless like the ocean. That’s why we say:
To the Buddhas I return and rely, vowing that all beings understand the Great Way profoundly, and bring forth the bodhi mind.
To the Dharma I return and rely, vowing that all beings deeply enter the sutra treasury, and have wisdom like the sea.
To the Sangha I return and rely, vowing that all beings
form a great assembly, one and all in harmony.
Unless you study Buddhism over a long period of time, you won’t understand the Buddhadharma.
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